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AH-64 Apache


The Boeing (McDonnell Douglas) (formerly Hughes) AH-64A Apache is the Army's primary attack helicopter. It is a quick-reacting, airborne weapon system that can fight close and deep to destroy, disrupt, or delay enemy forces. The Apache is designed to fight and survive during the day, night, and in adverse weather throughout the world. The principal mission of the Apache is the destruction of high-value targets with the HELLFIRE missile. It is also capable of employing a 30MM M230 chain gun and Hydra 70 (2.75 inch) rockets that are lethal against a wide variety of targets. The Apache has a full range of aircraft survivability equipment and has the ability to withstand hits from rounds up to 23MM in critical areas. The AH-64 Apache is a twin-engine, four bladed, multi-mission attack helicopter designed as a highly stable aerial weapons-delivery platform. It is designed to fight and survive during the day, night, and in adverse weather throughout the world. With a tandem-seated crew consisting of the pilot, located in the rear cockpit position and the co-pilot gunner (CPG), located in the front position, the Apache is self-deployable, highly survivable and delivers a lethal array of battlefield armaments. The Apache features a Target Acquisition Designation Sight (TADS) and a Pilot Night Vision Sensor (PNVS) which enables the crew to navigate and conduct precision attacks in day, night and adverse weather conditions. The Apache can carry up to 16 Hellfire laser designated missiles. With a range of over 8000 meters, the Hellfire is used primarily for the destruction of tanks, armored vehicles and other hard material targets. The Apache can also deliver 76, 2.75" folding fin aerial rockets for use against enemy personnel, light armor vehicles and other soft-skinned targets. Rounding out the Apache旧 deadly punch are 1,200 rounds of ammunition for its Area Weapons System (AWS), 30MM Automatic Gun. Powered by two General Electric gas turbine engines rated at 1890 shaft horsepower each, the Apache旧 maximum gross weight is 17,650 pounds which allows for a cruise airspeed of 145 miles per hour and a flight endurance of over three hours. The AH-64 can be configured with an external 230-gallon fuel tank to extend its range on attack missions, or it can be configured with up to four 230-gallon fuel tanks for ferrying/self-deployment missions. The combat radius of the AH-64 is approximately 150 kilometers. The combat radius with one external 230-gallon fuel tank installed is approximately 300 kilometers [radii are temperature, PA, fuel burn rate and airspeed dependent]. The AH-64 is air transportable in the C-5, C-141 and C-17. An on-board video recorder has the capability of recording up to 72 minutes of either the pilot or CPG selected video. It is an invaluable tool for damage assessment and reconnaissance. The Apache's navigation equipment consists of a doppler navigation system, and most aircraft are equipped with a GPS receiver. The Apache has state of the art optics that provide the capability to select from three different target acquisition sensors. These sensors areDay TV. Views images during day and low light levels, black and white.
TADS FLIR. Views thermal images, real world and magnified, during day, night and adverse weather.DVO. Views real world, full color, and magnified images during daylight and dusk conditions. >

[ 本文最後由 jacklf2004 於 07-11-10 10:17 PM 編輯 ]
 

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The Apache has four articulating weapons pylons, two on either side of the aircraft, on which weapons or external fuel tanks can be mounted. The aircraft has a LRF/D. This is used to designate for the Hellfire missile system as well as provide range to target information for the fire control computer's calculations of ballistic solutions.
Threat identification through the FLIR system is extremely difficult. Although the AH-64 crew can easily find the heat signature of a vehicle, it may not be able to determine friend or foe. Forward looking infrared detects the difference in the emission of heat in objects. On a hot day, the ground may reflect or emit more heat than the suspected target. In this case, the environment will be "hot" and the target will be "cool". As the air cools at night, the target may lose or emit heat at a lower rate than the surrounding environment. At some point the emission of heat from both the target and the surrounding environment may be equal. This is IR crossover and makes target acquisition/detection difficult to impossible. IR crossover occurs most often when the environment is wet. This is because the water in the air creates a buffer in the emissivity of objects. This limitation is present in all systems that use FLIR for target acquisition.
Low cloud ceilings may not allow the Hellfire seeker enough time to lock onto its target or may cause it to break lock after acquisition. At extended ranges, the pilot may have to consider the ceiling to allow time for the seeker to steer the weapon onto the target. Pilot night vision sensor cannot detect wires or other small obstacles. Overwater operations severely degrade navigation systems not upgraded with embedded GPS. Although fully capable of operating in marginal weather, attack helicopter capabilities are seriously degraded in conditions below a 500-foot ceiling and visibility less than 3 km. Because of the Hellfire missile's trajectory, ceilings below 500 feet require the attack aircraft to get too close to the intended target to avoid missile loss. Below 3 km visibility, the attack aircraft is vulnerable to enemy ADA systems. Some obscurants can prevent the laser energy from reaching the target; they can also hide the target from the incoming munitions seeker. Dust, haze, rain, snow and other particulate matter may limit visibility and affect sensors. The Hellfire remote designating crew may offset a maximum of 60 degrees from the gun to target line and must not position their aircraft within a +30-degree safety fan from the firing aircraft.
The Apache fully exploits the vertical dimension of the battlefield. Aggressive terrain flight techniques allow the commander to rapidly place the ATKHB at the decisive place at the optimum time. Typically, the area of operations for Apache is the entire corps or divisional sector. Attack helicopters move across the battlefield at speeds in excess of 3 kilometers per minute. Typical planning airspeeds are 100 to 120 knots during daylight and 80 to 100 knots at night. Speeds during marginal weather are reduced commensurate with prevailing conditions. The Apache can attack targets up to 150 km across the FLOT. If greater depth is required, the addition of ERFS tanks can further extend the AH-64's range with a corresponding reduction in Hellfire missile carrying capacity (four fewer Hellfire missiles for each ERFS tank installed).
Apache production began in FY82 and the first unit was deployed in FY86. As of November 1993, 807 Apaches were delivered to the Army. The last Army Apache delivery is scheduled for December 1995. Thirty-three attack battalions are deployed and ready for combat. The Army is procuring a total of 824 Apaches to support a new force structure of 25 battalions with 24 Apaches for each unit (16 Active; 2 Reserve; 7 National Guard) under the Aviation Restructure Initiative. The Apache has been sold to Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Greece.
The Russian-developed Mi-24 HIND is the Apache's closest couterpart. The Russians have deployed significant numbers of HINDs in Europe and have exported the HIND to many third world countries. The Russians have also developed the KA-50 HOKUM as their next generation attack helicopter. The Italian A-129 Mangusta is the nearest NATO counterpart to the Apache. The Germans and French are co-developing the PAH-2 Tiger attack helicopter, which has many of the capabilities of the Apache.  AH-64A The AH-64 fleet consists of two aircraft models, the AH-64A and the newer Longbow Apache (LBA), AH-64D. AH-64A model full-scale production began in 1983 and now over 800 aircraft have been delivered to the U.S. Army and other NATO Allies. The U.S. Army plans to remanufacture its entire AH-64A Apache fleet to the AH-64D configuration over the next decade. The AH-64A fleet exceeded one million flight hours in 1997, and the median age of today's fleet is 9 years and 1,300 flight hours.
 

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The AH-64A proved its capabilities in action during both Operation Restore Hope and Operation Desert Storm. Apache helicopters played a key role in the 1989 action in Panama, where much of its activity was at night, when the AH-64's advanced sensors and sighting systems were effective against Panamanian government forces.
Apache helicopters also played a major role in the liberation of Kuwait. On 20 November 1990, the 11th Aviation Brigade was alerted for deployment to Southwest Asia from Storck Barracks in Illesheim Germany. The first elements arrived in theater 24 November 1990. By 15 January 1991 the unit had moved 147 helicopters, 325 vehicles and 1,476 soldiers to the region. The Apache helicopters of the Brigade destroyed more than 245 enemy vehicles with no losses. During Operation Desert Storm, AH-64s were credited with destroying more than 500 tanks plus hundreds of additional armored personnel carriers, trucks and other vehicles. They also were used to destroy vital early warning radar sites, an action that opened the U.N. coalition's battle plan. Apaches also demonstrated the ability to perform when called upon, logging thousands of combat hours at readiness rates in excess of 85 percent during the Gulf War.
While recovery was ongoing, additional elements of the 11th Aviation Brigade began the next chapter of involvement in the region. On 24 April 1991 the 6th Squadron, 6th Cavalry旧 18 AH-64 helicopters began a self-deployment to Southwest Asia. The Squadron provided aerial security to a 3,000 square kilometer region in Northern Iraq as part of the Combined Task Force of Operation Provide Comfort.
And the AH-64A Apache helped to keep the peace in Bosnia. April of 1996 saw the beginning of the 11th Regiment旧 involvement in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Elements of 6-6 Cavalry served as a part of Task Force Eagle under 1st Armored Division for 7 months. In October of 1996, Task Force 11, consisting of the Regimental Headquarters, 2-6 Cavalry, 2-1 Aviation and 7-159 Aviation (AVIM) deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of Operation Joint Endeavor/Operation Joint Guard for 8 months. In June of 1998 the Regimental Headquarters, 6-6 Cav and elements of 5-158 Aviation were again deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of Operations Joint Guard and Joint Forge for 5 months. The AH-64A’s advanced sensors and sighting systems proved effective in removing the cover of darkness from anti-government forces.
Army National Guard units in North and South Carolina, Florida, Texas, Arizona, Utah and Idaho also fly Apache helicopters. The Army has fielded combat-ready AH-64A units in the United States, West Germany and in Korea, where they play a major role in achieving the US Army's security missions.
By late 1996, McDonnell Douglas Helicopters delivered 937 AH-64A Apaches -- 821 to the U.S. Army and 116 to international customers, including Egypt, Greece, Israel, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
The Apache is clearly one of the most dynamic and important programs in aviation and the Army, but it is not without limitations. Due to the possibility of surging the engines, pilots have been instructed not to fire rockets from in-board stations. According to current doctrine, they are to fire no more than pairs with two outboard launchers every three seconds, or fire with only one outboard launcher installed without restrictions (ripples permitted). These are the only conditions permitted. Other firing conditions will be required to be approved via a System Safety Risk Assessment (SSRA).
The improvement of aircraft systems troubleshooting is a high priority issue for O&S Cost reduction. Because of funding cuts, the level of contractor support to the field has been reduced. This results in higher costs in no fault found removals, maintenance man hours, and aircraft down time. The Apache PM, US Army Aviation Logistics School, and Boeing are currently undertaking several initiatives. Upgrading and improving the soldier's ability to quickly and accurately fault isolate the Apache weapons system is and will continue to be an O&S priority until all issues are resolved.
Prime Vendor Support (PVS) for the entire fleet of AH-64s is a pilot program for the Army, and may become a pilot program for the Department of Defense. PVS will place virtually all of Apache's wholesale logistic responsibility under a single contract. The Apache flying hour program will provide upfront funding for spares, repairables, contractor technical experts, and reliability improvements. Starting at the flight line there will be contractor expert technicians with advanced troubleshooting capability assigned to each Apache Battalion. At the highest level, PVS represents a single contractor focal point for spares and repairs. The intent is to break the current budget and requirements cycle that has Apache at 67% supply availability with several thousand lines at zero balance.
 

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The Aviation Mission Planning System (AMPS) and the Data Transfer Cartridge (DTC) are tools for the Embedded Global Positioning Inertial Navigation Unit (EGI) equipped AH-64A aircraft that allow aircrews to plan missions and download the information to a DTC installed in the Data Transfer Receptacle (DTR). This saves the pilots a lot of "fat fingering" and eliminates the worry of everyone being on the same "sheet of music". Other features of the DTC include; saving waypoints and targets and troubleshooting. The EGI program is a Tri-service program with the Army, Air Force and Navy. AH-64A Apache Multi-Mission Configurations
Primary MissionStarboard WingM230 GunPort WingRate of ClimbDuration
Combat
(Anti-armor)
4 Hellfire320 rds 30mm4 Hellfire1450 fpm1.8 hours
Multi-role
(Covering force)
4 Hellfire
19 FFAR *
1200 rds 30mm4 Hellfire
19 FFAR *
860 fpm2.5 hours
Close-support
(Anti-armor)
8 Hellfire1200 rds 30mm8 Hellfire990 fpm2.5 hours
Ground-support
(Airmobile escort)
38 FFAR *1200 rds 30mm38 FFAR *780 fpm2.5 hours
* FFAR = 70mm (2.75 inch) Folding-Fin Aerial Rockets
 

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AH-64D LongbowThe AH-64D Longbow Apache is a remanufactured and upgraded version of the AH-64A Apache attack helicopter. The primary modifications to the Apache are the addition of a millimeter-wave Fire Control Radar (FCR) target acquisition system, the fire-and-forget Longbow Hellfire air-to-ground missile, updated T700-GE-701C engines, and a fully-integrated cockpit. In addition, the aircraft receives improved survivability, communications, and navigation capabilities. Most existing capabilities of the AH-64A Apache are retained.
Transportability requirements were initially identified in the ORD and further defined in the AH-64D System Specification. Both configurations of the AH-64D, including any removed items and appropriate PGSE, shall be capable of being transported aboard C-141B, C-5A, or C-17 aircraft. The aircraft shall also be capable of being transported and hangar stored below decks in the landing platform helicopter (LPH) type carrier, Fast SeaLift ships, Roll-on/Roll-off, LASH, SEABEE ships, and Military Sealift Command (MSC) dry cargo ships. Additionally, the aircraft shall be transportable by military M-270A1 trailer and commercial "Air-Ride" trailer or equivalent. For aerial recovery, the AH-64D with MMA will be externally transportable by CH-47D aircraft using the Unit Maintenance Aerial Recovery Kit. Two AH-64D plus one FCR aircraft will be transportable by C-141, six AH-64Ds (with a minimum of three FCR mission kits) are transportable by C-5, and three AH-64Ds and three FCR mission kits are transportable by C-17.
The AH-64D is being fielded in two configurations. The full-up AH-64D includes all of the improvements listed above. In addition, a version of the AH-64D without the FCR will be fielded. This version will not receive the new Radar Frequency Interferometer (RFI) or the improved engines, but will retain the other Longbow modifications. The AH-64D without FCR is capable of launching the Longbow Hellfire missile.
 

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During Army operational testing in 1995, all six Longbow Apache prototypes competed against standard AH-64A Apaches. The threat array developed to test the combat capabilities of the two Apache designs was a postulated 2004 lethal and digitized force consisting of heavy armor, air defense and countermeasures. The tests clearly demonstrated that Longbow Apaches:Are 400 percent more lethal (hitting more targets) than the AH-64A, already the most capable and advanced armed helicopter in the world to enter service. Are 720 percent more survivable than the AH-64A. Meet or exceed Army requirements for both target engagement range and for probability of acquiring a seleted target. The specific requirements and results are classified. Easily can hit moving and stationary tanks on an obscured, dirty battlefield from a range of more than 7 kilometers, when optical systems are rendered ineffective. Can use either its Target Acquisition Designation Sight or fire control radar as a targeting sight, offering increased battlefield flexibility. Have the ability to initiate the radar scan, detect and classify more than 128 targets, prioritize the 16 most dangerous targets, transmit the information to other aircraft, and initiate a precision attack -- all in 30 seconds or less. Require one third less maintenance man hours (3.4) per flight hour than the requirement. Are able to fly 91 percent of the time -- 11 percent more than the requirement. One issue uncovered during the Initial Operational Test that requires follow-on testing involves the method of employment of the Longbow Hellfire missile. During the force-on-force phase, Longbow flight crews frequently elected to override the system's automatic mode selection logic and fire missiles from a masked position. This powerful technique can significantly increase the helicopter's survivability, but has not been validated with live missile firings during developmental or operational testing. DOT&E is currently working with the Army to develop a test plan that will confirm system performance using this firing technique. This test program will include computer simulation of the missile's target acquisition and fly-out as well as live missile firings at moving armored vehicles.



 

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AH-64D APACHE LONGBOW FIELDING SCHEDULEFIELDINGUNIT
LOCATIONSTAGE AT
21ST CAVE-DATECOLLECTIVE
TRAININGMISSION
READY11-227 AVNHOODFEB-APR 98JUL 98 JUL-SEP 98OCT 98 22-101 AVNCAMPBELLFEB-APR 99JUN 99 JUN-AUG 99SEP 9931-2 AVNKOREASEP-NOV 99JUN 00 JUN-AUG 00SEP 0041-101 AVNCAMPBELLFEB-APR 00NOV 00 DEC 00- FEB 01MAR 01 51-3 AVNSTEWARTJUN-AUG 00MAR 01 MAR-MAY 01JUN 01 66-6 CAVGERMANYJAN-MAR 01AUG 01 AUG-OCT 01NOV 01 73-101 AVNCAMPBELLJUN-AUG 01MAR 02 MAR-MAY 02JUN 0284-3 ACRCARSONJAN-APR 02JUN 02 JUN-AUG 02SEP 0291-501 AVN GERMANYJAN-MAR 02NOV 02 NOV 02-JAN 03FEB 03101-229 AVNBRAGGJUL-SEP 02APR 03 APR-JUN 03JUL 03 113-6 CAVKOREANOV-DEC 02AUG 03 AUG-OCT 03NOV 03 123-229 AVNBRAGGAPR-JUN 03FEB 04 FEB-APR 04MAY 04 131-1 AVN GERMANYSEP-NOV 03JUL 04 JUL-SEP 04OCT 04 141-111 AVNFLNGMAR-JUL 04*NOV 04 NOV O4-JAN 05FEB 05151-6 CAVKOREAMAY-JUL 04MAR 05 MAR-MAY 05JUN 05 161-130 AVNNCNGNOV 04-MAY 05*AUG 05 AUG-OCT 05NOV 05 172-6 CAVGERMANYFEB-APR 05DEC 05 JAN-MAR 05APR 06 181-4 AVNHOODOCT-DEC 05APR 06 APR-JUN 06JUL 06198-229AVNKYAR APR-AUG 06*SEP 06 SEP-NOV 06DEC 06201-151 AVNSCNGAUG-DEC 06*JAN 07 JAN-MAR 07APR 07217-6 CAVTXARJAN-APR 07*MAY 07 MAY-JUL 07AUG 07 221-285 AVNAZNGAPR-JUL 07*OCT 07 OCT-DEC 07JAN 08 231-183 AVNIDNGJUL-OCT 07*FEB 08 FEB-APR 08MAY 08 241-211 AVNUTNGOCT 07-JAN 08*JUN 08 JUN-AUG 08SEP 08 25 1-149 AVNTXNGJAN-APR 08NOV 08 NOV 08-JAN 09FEB 09
*Bold dates indicate direct turn-in (No Staging)
 

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Specifications
Contractors Boeing McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems(Mesa, AZ)
General Electric (Lynn, MA)
Martin Marietta (Orlando, FL)
PropulsionTwo T700-GE-701Cs
CrewTwo
AH-64A AH-64D
Length58.17 ft (17.73 m) 58.17 ft (17.73 m)
Height15.24 ft (4.64 m) 13.30 ft (4.05 m)
Wing Span17.15 ft (5.227 m) 17.15 ft (5.227 m)
Primary Mission Gross Weight15,075 lb (6838 kg)
11,800 pounds Empty
16,027 lb (7270 kg) Lot 1 Weight
Hover In-Ground Effect (MRP)15,895 ft (4845 m)
[Standard Day]
14,845 ft (4525 m)
[Hot Day ISA + 15C]
14,650 ft (4465 m)
[Standard Day]
13,350 ft (4068 m)
[Hot Day ISA + 15 C]
Hover Out-of-Ground Effect (MRP)12,685 ft (3866 m)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
11,215 ft (3418 m)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
10,520 ft (3206 m)
[Standard Day]
9,050 ft (2759 m)
[Hot Day ISA + 15 C]
Vertical Rate of Climb (MRP)2,175 fpm (663 mpm)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
2,050 fpm (625 mpm)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
1,775 fpm (541 mpm)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
1,595 fpm (486 mpm)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
Maximum Rate of Climb (IRP)2,915 fpm (889 mpm)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
2,890 fpm (881 mpm)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
2,635 fpm (803 mpm)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
2,600 fpm (793 mpm)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
Maximum Level Flight Speed150 kt (279 kph)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
153 kt (284 kph)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
147 kt (273 kph)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
149 kt (276 kph)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
Cruise Speed (MCP)150 kt (279 kph)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
153 kt (284 kph)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
147 kt (273 kph)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
149 kt (276 kph)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
Range400 km - internal fuel
1,900 km - internal and external fuel
ArmamentM230 33mm Gun
70mm (2.75 inch) Hydra-70 Folding-Fin Aerial Rockets
AGM-114 Hellfire anti-tank missiles
AGM-122 Sidearm anti-radar missile
AIM-9 Sidewinder Air-to-Air missiles
Mission EquipmentTarget Acquisition and Designation System /
Pilot Night Vision System
ReliabilityThe general objective of aircraft readiness is to achieve 75% Mission Capable.
Costs
 

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AH-64D Longbow






文章來自 :AH-64APicard機型AH-64A/D阿帕契(Apache)
 

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AH-64阿帕契攻擊直昇機





──by  Captian Picard


機型

AH-64A/D阿帕契(Apache)


類別

攻擊直昇機


製造國/廠

美國/休斯公司(休斯後來被麥道購併,麥道在90年代末期亦被波音購併)


使用國

AH-64A:美國、埃及、以色列、希臘、沙烏地阿拉伯、阿拉伯聯合大公國等


AH-64D:美國、新加坡、英國、日本、荷蘭、科威特、南韓等


全長


(含主旋翼)(m)

17.76


主旋翼直徑(m)

14.63


機高(m)

AH-64A:4.05


AH-64D:4.64


標準任務起飛重量(kg)

AH-64A:6838  


AH-64D:7270


最大起飛重量(kg)

AH-64A:9525


AH-64D:10107


最大平飛速率(km/hr)

AH-64A:284


AH-64D:276


爬升率(m/min)

AH-64A:625


AH-64D:486


任務作戰半徑(機內燃油)(km)

AH-64A:150


AH-64D:小於150


續航力(km)

機內燃油:611


機內燃油+加掛副油箱:1900


滯空時間(hr)

AH-64A:3小時9分鐘


AH-64D:小於3小時9分鐘


發動機──


最大連續/2.5分鐘緊急輸出功率(軸馬力)

AH-64A:


T-700-GE-701發動機 X2──每具1437/1723


AH-64D:


T-700-GE-701C發動機 X2──每具1662/1940


乘員

2


感測系統

目標獲得系統(TADS):包含日間電視攝影機、第一代前視紅外線熱影像儀(FLIR)、雷射測距/標定儀、砲手用直接光學瞄準器


飛行員夜視系統(PNVS):包含一具FLIR


APG-78長弓毫米波射控雷達(AH-64D)


TADS/PNVS 2000箭頭標定導航系統(AH-64D,研發中)


武裝

固定:機首M-230E1 30mm 鏈砲 X 1(載彈量1200發)


外載:


兩個武器掛載短翼:每個短翼下方有兩個掛載點,每個可掛一個四聯裝AGM-114地獄火反戰車飛彈發射架,或一具19聯裝2.75in空射火箭發射器,或一枚AGM-122反輻射飛彈。AH-64C/D增加空對空飛彈的運用能力,可能的選擇包括AIM-9、刺針、西北風或Helstreak空對空飛彈。


AH-64C/D的每個短翼尖端可增設一個掛載點,以掛載空對空飛彈。
 

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