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【教學主題】 GNU/Linux初學者常用的命令和軟體

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發表於 15-10-12 21:28:54 |顯示全部樓層 大字 中字 小字 正體化 简体化
本文章最後由 無我皇 於 16-9-29 17:59 編輯

GNU/Linux初學者常用的命令和軟體
GNU/Linux beginners commonly used
commands and software

小皇不厲害,是系統厲害,
小皇不會英文,也不會寫程式,
但小皇辦到了使用GNU/Linux,
若小皇能相信你也可以,
I'm not bad, is a system badly,
I could not speak English,
can not write programs,
But I do use GNU/Linux,
If I can believe you can,

201507234-RedHatLinux8-Gnome-GIMP-thCOM-UIC.jpg



終端機鍵入命令:
Terminal type the command:

cd
切換工作目錄,跟微軟的dos用法一樣
Switching the working directory,
just like in dos with Microsoft

ls
列出檔案,相當於微軟dos的dir命令
Lists files, equivalent to Microsoft dos dir command

mount
掛載磁區
Mount magnetic zone

umount
卸載已掛載的目錄
Uninstall has mounted directory

tar
.tar.gz 或是 .tgz常見最容易用的壓縮程式
.tar.gz or .tgz most common
compression program is easy to use

reboot
重新開機
Reboot

halt
關機
Shutdown

cp
複製,相當於微軟dos中的copy
Copy, the copy is equivalent to Microsoft dos

startx
若開機沒進入到圖形界面時使用來進入圖形界面.
If the boot did not enter into the graphical interface
used to access the graphical interface.

gdm
另一種若開機沒進入到圖形界面時使用來進入圖形界面.
If not using another boot into the graphical interface
when to enter the graphical interface.

uname -a
查看系統所使用的核心版本
Kernel version used to view system

fdisk -l /dev/hda
列出第一顆IDE硬碟的磁區分割狀況.
A magnetic domain is listed first IDE
hard drive partition status.

top
即時監控執行中的程式
Real-time monitoring the implementation of the program

clear
清除終端機螢幕
Clear the terminal screen

mkdir
建立目錄資料夾
Create a directory folder

setup
某些GNU/Linux的安裝程式,
例如Plamo Linux的.tgz安裝包就是如此安裝.
Some GNU/Linux installation program,
For example, the .tgz Plamo Linux
installation package is so installed.

df
查看已經掛載硬碟分割區的使用狀況
Check usage already mounted hard disk partitions

du
顯示目前的目錄所佔的硬碟空間
Displays the current directory disk space occupied

pwd
顯示目前所在的工作目錄路徑
Displays the current working directory path where

linuxconf
linux的設定工具集
linux setting tool set

panel
呼叫GNOME的面板
Call GNOME panel

exit
退出程式
Exit Program

su
sudo
某些GNU/Linux系統以root身分執行命令用
Some GNU/Linux system as root command

xterm
Eterm
terminal
三種都是終端機
Are three kinds of terminals

ksnapshot
截圖程式
Screenshot program

netscape
moillza
兩種都是瀏覽器
Both are browser

xedit
好用的編輯器具有在目錄中移動
Easy to use editor has to move in the directory

gedit
好用的文字編輯器
Easy to use text editor

gimp
強大的繪圖軟體
Powerful graphics software

xv
輕巧的圖檔轉換器,具有截圖功能.
Lightweight image file converter
with screenshot function.

gqview
很好用的看圖軟體,滑鼠三鍵都有功能.
Figure software very easy to use,
has a three-button mouse functionality.

qvwm
twm
xfce
很好用的視窗管理員
Good use of the Window Manager

xftree
很好用的檔案管理器
Good use of file manager

xmms
mp3音樂播放程式
mp3 music player program


組合鍵
Key combination
Ctrl + Alt + F1~F7
切換不同模式,
Ctrl + Alt + F7 是回到圖形界面,
有一些回圖形介面是用 Ctrl + Alt + F8
Switch between different modes,
Ctrl + Alt + F7 is back to the graphical interface ,
There are some graphical interfaces back to using Ctrl + Alt + F8

Ctrl + Alt + Backspace
退出X-WINDOW重新登入
Quit X-WINDOW re-login

Ctrl + Alt + (- or +)
改變桌面顯示區域為局部顯示超出的成隱藏區域
Change the desktop beyond the display area
of the partial display area into hiding

Ctrl + C
終端機中直接結束呼叫出來的程式
Ended terminal directly call out program

請注意有些GNU/Linux在圖形介面中兩個檔案管理器
拖拉物件時複製檔案一定要同時按Ctrl鍵來拖移物件,
有些GNU/Linux拖移物件預設是移動物件.
看物件拖移時有沒有出現+號圖示.
Please note that some GNU/Linux in the graphical interface in the two file manager
Drag the object copy files must also press the Ctrl key to drag the object,
Some GNU/Linux drag objects are moving objects by default.
There is no + icon to see when the object is dragged.
201509093-1-Mandrake_Linux_8-enlightenment-ksnapshot-thCOM-UIC.jpg

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
I do not know English
English is translated using google translate
https://translate.google.com/
小皇不懂英文
英文都是用google translate翻譯的
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

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