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    Avenger (Pedestal Mounted Stinger)

    復仇者 PMS防空飛彈系統




    原文:

    The Avenger Pedestal Mounted Stinger system is a lightweight, mobile and transportable surface-to-air missile and gun weapon system, mounted on a Heavy High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV). Avenger is designed to counter hostile cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles, and low-flying, high-speed, fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters attacking or transiting friendly airspace. The Avenger, manufactured by Boeing in Huntsville, is a shoot-on-the-move, totally automated, day-and-night capable short-range air defense system. A key element of the Army’s Forward Area Air Defense System, Avenger was deployed during Operation Desert Storm and in currently deployed in the Balkans.

    Avenger fills the Line of Sight-Rear (LOS-R) portion of the Forward Area Air Defense System (FAADS). It has a two man crew and can operate in day or night, clear or adverse weather conditions. The system incorporates an operator's position with displays, fire control electronics, and the Standard Vehicle Mounted Launcher (SVML). The SVML supports and launches multiple Stinger missiles (Basic Stinger, Stinger-POST (Passive Optical Seeker Technique), or Stinger-RMP (Reprogrammable MicroProcessor). Additionally, the SVML incorporates a .50 caliber machine gun and necessary fire control sensors for both weapons. The contribution this highly mobile, short range air defense system makes to the Army's full-dimensional protection enhances the ground components prospects for dominant maneuver by preserving key elements of the force.

    The Avenger weapon system includes a 360°, rotating turret mounted on a heavy HMMWV chassis with an upgraded suspension and 200 amp alternator. The baseline configuration consists of a gunner’s turret with missile pods mounted on each side. Each missile pod, called the standard vehicle-mounted launcher, can hold four missiles that can be removed and fired in the MANPAD employment configuration. The rotation of the turret and the eleva-tion of the standard vehicle-mounted launcher is accomplished by electric motors powered by batteries carried in the base of the weapons system. The vehicle’s power system is in parallel with the Avenger battery set. The .50 caliber machine gun affords a measure of self-protection by providing additional coverage of the Stinger missile’s inner launch boundary.
     

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    The Avenger weapons system has an unobstructed, 360° field of fire and can engage at elevations between -10 and +70°. The modular design of Avenger allows complementary missiles and/or rockets to be installed on the launch arms in addition to (or in place of) Stinger missiles. The gunner has sufficient visibility out of the turret for visual target acquisition, tracking, and engagement. A combination glass sight is used through which the gunner looks to aim the missiles and on which a driven reticle display is projected. The driven reticle indicates the aiming point of the missile seeker to confirm to the gunner that the missile seeker is locked onto the desired target.

    Avenger’s sensor package includes a forward-looking, infrared (FLIR), carbon dioxide, eye-safe laser range finder and a video autotracker. These sensors provide Avenger with a target acquisition capability in battlefield obscuration at night and in adverse weather. Range data from the laser range finder is processed by the Avenger fire control system to provide a fire permit for missile and gun use. A driven reticle and other data are displayed on the forward-looking infrared display in the same manner as the optical sight.

    The turret drive is gyro-stabilized to automatically maintain the missile pod aiming direction regardless of the vehicle motion. The turret drive control is operated by the gunner with a hand controller on which the missile and gun controls are placed. The gunner can transfer tracking control to an automatic turret drive control system that uses signals for the uncaged missile seeker of the FLIR video autotracker to track the target until the gunner is ready to fire. The firing sequence is entirely automated, including superelevation and lead, so that the gunner need merely push the fire button to initiate the fire sequence and immediately select and prepare the next missile for firing. These systems enable Avenger to accurately and rapidly launch missiles.

    Avenger is equipped with two VHF-FM frequency-hopping radios (i.e., SINCGARS) and an integrated remote terminal unit. When this capability is tied into the Marine air command and control system, Avenger can be configured to automatically slew to a target that appears on the radar display. This capability is known as “slew to cue.” Targets pointed out by ground-based air defense units, tactical air operations center operators, or the LAAD section leader can be accepted or rejected by the gunner. Until the gunner responds to the cue, the gunner maintains complete control of the Avenger turret. If the gunner accepts a pointer, the turret automatically slews to the azimuth of the target. The gunner then resumes control of the turret and completes the engagement process by acquiring, tracking, and engaging the target. “Slew to cue” is a capability inherent to any radar picture.


    Avenger completed a two phase IOT&E in 1989. Phase I consisted of acquisition and tracking trials at Fort Hunter-Liggett. Phase II consisted of Stinger missile firings at White Sands Missile Range. The Avenger system was found to be operationally effective by DOT&E in the B-LRIP to Congress dated February 28, 1990. Avenger was found to be operationally suitable with some limiting factors. These limiting factors were: back blast damage to the cab at some firing azimuths and elevations; excessive hydrogen chloride gas levels in the cab; need for a improved voltage regulator; and the need for an environmental control unit/ primary power unit (ECU/PPU) for the gunner's cupola.
     

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    The Army reports that they have corrected the limiting factors. Prior to fielding, Boeing reinforced the vehicle doors to prevent back blast damage. Also, cab openings and doors received new seals or gaskets to reduce the HCL gas levels. A retrofit was performed to address the voltage regulator problem. A redesigned regulator and a larger alternator were installed on all fielded vehicles, while the new items were cut into production.


    An ECU/PPU design was tested and found to address the heat build-up in the cupola. During testing, the ECU/PPU was found to create an EMI problem with the Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and the Radar Control Unit Video. Before fixes could be incorporated, the SBA contracted firm producing the ECU went bankrupt. An alternate source was identified when another firm purchased the defaulter. Fixes have been explored as part of the contract restart. A follow-on test was completed by Redstone Technical Test Center to verify ECU/PPU performance and compatibility. First production units have been accepted. The new ECU/PPU underwent environmental testing at RTTC, Huntsville. Since the testing used a fixture, not the system, the testing did not provide sufficient operational data needed by OPTEC and DOT&E to provide an adequate evaluation of this issue.


    OPTEC (OEC) is working with the PM to plan an ECU/PPU environmental test which satisfies the data requirements for the operational evaluators. The test and evaluation of the Avenger in accordance with the DOT&E approved TEMP dated 20 June 1987 will conclude once the ECU/PPU limiting factors outlined in the B-LRIP dated 28 February 1990 have been adequately addressed. Army testing of alternate source ECUs will examine the following questions: (1) Does the ECU cool the gunner's turret in extreme temperatures? (2) Is the ECU reliable? (3) Are there any safety problems with the ECU? (4) Does the ECU degrade the operational capabilities of the Avenger, for example, the range of the SINCGARS radios? Technical testing to date has addressed these questions, however the Army has yet to test a "production representative" item. When Army technical testing is complete, data will be provided to OPTEC and DOT&E for review and assessment. When the B-LRIP limiting factors have been completely addressed, Avenger will be dropped from DOT&E oversight.

    The AVENGER is operated by a two-man crew. The gunner operates from inside the turret, and the driver operates from the driver's compartment. The health hazard assessment identified heat stress as a potential health hazard. Testing indicated that both the gunner and driver became uncomfortably hot following 60 minutes of firing when the outside temperatures near 85¡F. When the gunner and driver operated in Mission-Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP), significantly higher heat loads were observed. Actual firing missions for the AVENGER may last up to 12 hours, and the associated heat loads on the gunner and driver may be well in excess of acceptable levels. The health hazard assessment report recommended installation of a cooling system at all crew positions.
     

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    完:

    In early 1999 the Army exercised a $14.6 million option on future production of an upgrade kit for Avenger air defense units that will greatly increased their effectiveness beginning 1st Qtr FY00. The Slew-To-Cue (STC) subsystem, a major upgrade enhancement to the Avenger, is expected to improve Avenger’s target acquisition, tracking and engagement range by about 50 percent while increasing the number of engagements and kills by more than 50 percent. The system will also significantly improve Avenger’s battlespace performance. Using STC, the Avenger will be able to accept digital early warning data and automatically slew the turret in both azimuth and elevation, centering the target in the gunner's field of view. Targeting data is provided by Forward Area Air Defense (FAAD) Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I). The FAAD C3I equipment provides early warning/alerting, a complete air picture, slew-to-cue and target IFF information. This improvement not only improves the efficiency and effectiveness of the Avenger, but also allows it to kill the broadening spectrum of 21st century threats, including CMs and UAVs. The $14.6 million contract is for low-rate initial production, full production, contractor logistic support for approximately 100 Avenger fire units.
     

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    數據資料:


    Specifications
    NameAvenger
    Crew2
    Combat Weight8,300 lbs
    Hull length16ft 3 in
    Width7 ft 2 in
    Height8ft 8in
    Ground Clearance16 in
    Track Widthno tracks
    Main Armament8 Stinger missiles 10 km acquisition range
    Secondary Armament1 12.7mm M3P machine gun with 200 12.7mm rounds
    Sensors and Fire ControlDigital fire control, FLIR, CO2 laser rangefinder, driven-reticle optical sight, remot control unit operable from Humvee cab or away from vehicle
    Armorsupplemental armor on cab
    PowerplantDetroit Diesel 135 hp coooled V-8
    Suspensionindependent double A-arm with coil spring on all wheels
    Speed60 mph range 300 miles
    Obstacle Clearence1ft 10in , gradient 60% fording with preparation 5 ft, with out 2ft 6 in
    PRIME CONTRACTORBoeing Aerospace (Huntsville, AL; Oakridge, TN)
     

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    SUBCONTRACTORS
    • AC; Huntsville, AL
    • Boeing; Huntsville, AL
    • Colsa; Huntsville, AL
    • Nichols Research; Huntsville, AL
    • Phoenix Industries; Huntsville, AL
    • United International Engineering; Huntsville, AL
    • Wildwood Electronics; Huntsville, AL
    • Hughes; Tucson, AZ
    • Arral Industries; Ontario, CA
    • FMS; Los Angeles, CA
    • Hughes; Pomona, CA
    • DBA; Melbourne, FL
    • CAI; Barrington, IL
    • Plastic Fabricating; Wichita, KS
    • KECO Industries; Florence, KY
    • Adams Russell; Amesbury, MA
    • General Electric; Pittsfield, MA
    • Magnavox; Mahwah, NJ
    • United Telecontrol Electronics; Asbury Park, NJ
    • Hughes; Farmington, NM
    • Cherokee Nation; Stillwell, OK
    • Letterkenny Army Depot;
    • Letterkenny, PA
    • Kaydon; Sumter, SC
    • Boeing; Oakridge, TN
    • ATI; Fort Worth, TX
    • Texas Instruments; Dallas, TX
    • Texstar; Grand Prairie, TX
    • General Electric; Burlington, VT
    • Electro-Tech; Blacksburg, VA
    • Renton Coil; Renton, WA
    • Milwaukee Gear; Milwaukee, WI
     

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    復仇者(Avenger)圖集
     

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    武器介紹:

    復仇者防空導彈是美國波音公司研發承制,以悍馬車為載具,配合一座導彈發射塔所組成,擁有兩具四聯裝剌針導彈發射器,由兩人操作,一套復仇者攜有八枚待射彈與八枚預備彈,右側導彈發射艙下方還設有一挺M3P型12.7mm機槍,填補該系統死角與陸上自衛需要。復仇者系統使用的剌針導彈最大射程達八公里,射高達三千八百公尺。


    復仇者飛彈是種輕量化、機動性高以及轉移陣地迅速的地對空飛彈系統。其設計是為對付來襲的巡弋飛彈、無人飛行載具,以及打擊低空高速穿越的定翼機或直升機。

    復仇者飛彈可採取全自動化操作,實施運動中射擊,堪稱全天候均可執行任務的短程野戰防空利器;同時配備有射控雷達系統,更增加對遠距目標攻擊效能。以我國復仇者飛彈為例,即搭配中科院自行研發天兵雷達,對於進入射程內的次音速巡弋飛彈或飛行器,具有強大打擊力量。復仇者飛彈操作乘員為2名,車上配有2具發射器,共可裝8枚飛彈,有效射程為10公里。
     

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    武器專題:

    「復仇者」防空導彈系統是美國陸軍「前沿區域防空」(FAAD)體系的關鍵要素,具有高度機動性、靈活性和反應敏捷性,承擔戰場前沿區域低層防空的重任,即能快速部署到戰場上的最前沿迅速構築防空體系的低空環節。令人意想不到的是,目前高度機動性一躍成為「復仇者」防空系統最大亮點,在城市中心和重要場所部署承擔機動低空防禦的核心,防範恐怖襲擊。

      2005年1月20日正午,美國總統布希在國會宣誓就職,開始他的第二個總統任期。美軍方面在就職典禮期間部署了一批防空導彈。這批均屬「復仇者」系列的導彈,主要部署在華盛頓地區的幾處地點,其中包括華盛頓東南的空軍基地。由此可見「復仇者」防空導彈系統的重要作用。

      


    [ 本文最後由 jacklf2004 於 07-7-31 07:30 PM 編輯 ]
     

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    續:

     一、「復仇者」防空導彈系統的研製。

      「復仇者」防空系統承擔低空防禦任務,有力打擊在防禦空域上進攻或經過的敵方巡航導彈、無人飛機、低飛的高速固定翼飛機和直升飛機等,是美國陸軍前沿區域防空系統的關鍵要素。「復仇者」導彈系統完全自動化,具有晝夜全天候交戰能力,是美軍第一種能在行進間發射的防空導彈系統。「復仇者」系統因體積小,運輸非常方便,一架C-130運輸機可同時運載3套復仇者系統或5具發射裝置。發射裝置除裝配於「悍馬」軍車上外,也可裝配於M113裝甲車和其它輪式/履帶式車輛上。
     

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