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    M109 155mm SP Howitzer
    The 155-mm M109 series, Self-propelled medium howitzers are highly mobile combat support weapons. They are air transportable in phase III of airborne operation. They have a cruising range of 220 miles at speeds up to 35 miles per hour. Combat loaded, The M109 series weighs 27.5 tons. The M109A2/A3/A4 howitzers uses M185 cannon and achieves a range of 23,500 meters. The replacement of the 23 caliber long barrel with the M284 cannon 39-caliber barrel on the M109A5/A6 increased the range capability to 30,00 meters. The 155-mm Projectile weights 98 pounds.




    The howitzer is a vehicle that provides armored combat support, is air transportable, internally loaded, and has excellent ground mobility. It allows firing in a 360 degree circle through its primary armament, the 155mm cannon assembly, and its secondary armament, the M2 heavy barrel caliber 50 machine gun. The system is capable of both direct (line of sight) and indirect (out of the line of sight) firing.



    1  M185 Cannon (M109A2/A3/A4)
       M284 Cannon (M109A5)
    2  Caliber 50 Machine Gun, M2
    3  Panoramic Telescope Shield and Indirect Fire Telescope
    4  Cannon Mount M178 (M109A2/A3/A4)
                    M182 (M109A5)
    5  Cab
    6  Hull
    7  Direct Fire Periscope

    M109裝備分析

     

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    PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS
    MAJOR ITEM:
    Model........................................................M109A2/A3/A4/A5
    Line Item Number.......................................K557667

    NATIONAL STOCK NUMBER
    M109A2........................................................2350-01-031-0586 M109A3........................................................2350-01-031-8851 M109A4........................................................2350-01-277-5770 M109A5........................................................2350-01-281-1719

    WEIGHT:
    Classification
    Empty...................................................................52,000 lb (23,586kg)
    Combat Loaded....................................................55,000 lb (24,948kg)

    WIDTH
    Overall.................................................................124 in.(3.1M)

    HEIGHT
    Overall.................................................................120.43 in(3M)
    Lowest operable height........................................109.93 in(2.8M)
    Ground clearance.......................................................18 in(0.45M)

    LENGTH
    M109A2/A3/A4 w/armament...................................359.38 in(9.12M)
    M109A5 w/armament..............................................361.38 in(9.17M)
    M109A2/A3/A4/A5 w/o armament..........................243.75 in(6.19M)

    SPEEDS
    High Speed..........................................35 mph (56.3kmph)
    Low Speed............................................6 mph (10kmph)
    Range..................................................217 miles (349km)

    PRIMARY ARMAMENT (TWO CONFIGURATIONS)
    Cannon assembly.........................................................................M185 (M109A2/A3/A4)
    ....................................................................................................M284 (M109A5)
    Cannon Tube Length....................................................................238 in. (6.05m) (M185)
    ....................................................................................................240 in. (6.09m) (M284)
    Cannon Mount.............................................................................M178 (M109A2/A3/A4)
    ....................................................................................................M182 (M109A5)
    Maximum Range (M109A2/M109A3/M109A4)..........................18,000m
    ....................................................................................................RAP 23,500m
    Maximum Range (M109A5).........................................................22,000m
    ....................................................................................................RAP 30,000m
    Maximum Rate of Fire..................................................................4 rds/min for 3 min
    Sustained Rate of Fire..................................................................1 rd/min for 60 min
    ...................................................................................................1 rd/ 3 min thereafter
    SECONDARY ARMAMENT
    Machine gun................................................................................Caliber 50, M2, Heavy barrel
     

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    AVAILABLE MODIFICATIONS
    Modifications of the Howitzers may vary to accommodate customer-desired capabilities. Each conversion is packaged in a kit for ease of shipment and delivery.

    Differences between models
    M109 SPH
    The M109 was the first model, with a very short barrel, double baffle muzzle brake, large fume extractor, and a maximum range of 14,600m.
    M109A1 SPH
    The M109A1 featured a new longer barrel, and various other improvements, with a maximum range of 18,100m.
    M109A2 SPH
    The M109A2 is a new production weapon which incorporated 27 mid-life improvements to the M109A1. The improvements provide for increased Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability(RAM) and safety characteristics as well as enhanced operational capabilities.

    The M109A2 has the long tube M185 cannon installed in the M178 gun mount. The cab has a rear bustle rack which provides an increased ammunition stowage capacity. It has an all weather ballistic shield mounted over the panoramic telescope; counterbalanced travel lock and provisions for mounting the M140 alignment device.

    M109A3 SPH
    The M109A3 is a depot converted M109A1 incorporating the 27 mid-life improvements. The operational characteristics of the M109A3 are virtually identical to the M109A2. Some M109A3s have three contact arm assemblies: all M109A2 have five contact arm assemblies.

    M109A4 SPH
    The M109A4 is a M109A2/A3 improvements include the addition of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical/ Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (NBC/RAM) product improvement kits. The driver and cannoneer no. 2 have an air purifier and two heaters mounted in the hull. An air purifier and four heaters are mounted in the cab for the rest of the crew. NBC Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) gear is stored in the new cannoneer seats and stowage boxes.

    The traversing mechanism is operates with a hydraulic clutch in the M109A4 instead of operating with an electric clutch as in the traversing mechanism in the M109A2/A3 howitzers. A clutch valve with an override valve provides for power traversing in the event of an electrical failure to the clutch valve solenoid. The M109A4 has two hydraulic filters mounted outside of the power pack. The M109A2/A3s have one internal hydraulic power pack filter.

    The M109A4 has a combat override switch to allow for emergency starting. The slave start receptacle has been moved from the battery compartment to the driver's compartment. The M109A2/A3 100 amp alternator has been replaced by a 180 amp alternator. Crew compartment subfloor drains have been added to provide for the drainage of DS2 used in the NBC decontamination process and provide for the drainage of excess water.

    M109A5 SPH
    The M109A5 is a modified M109A4 it consists of two major improvements: a new M284 cannon and a new M182 gun mount. These improvements provide the M109A5 with greater range and allow for sustained fire for prolonged periods of time.

    INTERNATIONAL VARIANTS
    M109A3G, German version of the M109, many improvements including new ordnance..
    M109L, Italian M109 fitted with ordance of FH-70..
    M109AL, Israeli version..
    M109 Taiwan uses the M108/109 chassis but with a 155mm weapon in an open mount. The short barrel version uses ordnance of the towed M114, more recent version has new and longer ordnance..
    M992, Field Artillery Ammunition Support Vehicle, uses M109 chassis with fully enclosed rear hull to carry 155mm ammunition..
    FDC, Fire Direction Centre or Fire Control Centre, uses M992 chassis and hull..

    On 24 May 2000 the government of Egypt requested a possible sale of 279 M109A2/A3 155mm self-propelled howitzers, support equipment, spare and repair parts, publications and technical data, personnel training and training equipment, U.S. government and contractor engineering and logistics personnel services, and other related elements of logistics support. The estimated cost was $48 million. Egypt will use these howitzers to replace aging Soviet towed artillery and to complement the modernization of the M1A1/M60A3 divisions.
     

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    THE FUTURE OF THE M109
    The M109A2-A5 series of Howitzers gives the customer the maximum flexibility to tailor modifications to meet desired missions requirements and can accommodate future technology.

    The M109A2-A5 series is economical to purchase, operate, and maintain. The M109 Family of howitzer continues to improve at considerable cost savings for the customer. It continues to be backed by the extensive life-cycle sustainment support of the weapon's proponent, The U.S. Army's Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command - Armament and Chemical, Acquisition and Logistics Activity (ACALA).

    M109A2-A5 比例圖



    M109 155mm 比例圖
     

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    M109圖集








     

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    二十一世紀的砲兵武器先驅者─十字軍自走砲系統 The Pioneer of Artillery-Crusader



    作者:何擎

    根據最新的戰略形勢調整,決定取消已耗資110億美元開發經費的十字軍(Crusader)自走砲系統的研發計劃。美國國防部的這項決定尚需獲得國會的批准,因此國防部、陸軍高層、國防工業之間勢必會展開激烈的辯論,由於最後的結果很難預料,十字軍系統目前成了前途未卜的武器發展計劃。
     

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    歲月催人老的M109系列

    美國陸軍現役的主力自走砲仍是老舊的M109系列,該系列自走砲早在1963年便開始服役,雖然陸續研製出A1、A2、A3、A4、A5、A6等六種型號,但整體構型不變,而且載具本身的機動性能沒有太大的改變。美國陸軍現役的M109包括A1、A2、A6型三種,是裝甲師和機械化步兵師的直接火力支援武器,其中的M109A6帕拉丁(Paladin)式是最新改良型,換裝了新的M284型榴砲,同時配備先進射控系統、導航系統、自動校正、夜視裝備、保密通信系統,發射標準砲彈的最大射程可達30公里,最高射速4發/分。



    除了帕拉丁式之外,M109系列仍在持續發展中,荷蘭的RDM與德國的萊茵金屬公司就合作研製了一款M109L52改良型,並在2002年的歐洲陸軍展首度公開。M109L52有著極佳的成本效益,與歐陸最先進的德國PzH2000自走砲相比,M109L52的綜合性能約達後者的90%,而單價卻只有它的15到30%。M109L52的主要改良項目是換裝PzH2000所裝備的52倍徑155公厘砲管,廠商實際測試的結果發現,M109L52與PzH2000在射擊時的彈道特性完全相同,因此可發射現有的所有155公厘彈藥和PzH2000使用的MTLS模組化藥包系統。每輛M109L52可在車內裝載36枚砲彈,由於換裝了新的裝填系統,每分鐘的發射速度從3發增加到9到10發,雖然這種高射速僅能持續1到2分鐘,不過在打了就跑的戰鬥任務中,高持續射速並不是最重要的。

    從M109A6和M109L52的例子可以發現,經過大幅改良的M109系列仍然具備不錯的性能,但是這種原始設計高達40歲高齡的自走砲已屆發展極限,而且美國陸軍對此車的越野機動性不足的缺點一直頗有微詞。因此,美國陸軍自1990年代初期便積極研發全新世代的自走砲,這就是本文將介紹的十字軍自走榴砲系統。這套武器的正式名稱應該是十字軍野戰砲兵系統,整套系統包括XM2001自走砲、XM2002履帶補給車、XM2003補給模組所組成,因此整套系統包含了火砲和戰鬥支援裝備。
     

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    十字軍自走砲系統

    十字軍系統是由聯合防衛(United Defense)公司所發展,這是根據美國陸軍在21世紀作戰需要而研發的革命性野戰自走砲系統。全套系統自1994年開始研發,期間進行了若干技術修正,例如取消了技術複雜、價格昂貴的液態發射藥火砲技術,改採技術風險較低的固態推進藥火砲技術;降低砲車的重量,戰鬥重量由55噸大幅降到40噸。十字軍系統內的自走砲和支援車輛都具備不錯的機動性,足以跟得上機械化打擊部隊的推進速度;更重要的是整個系統的作業自動化程度極高,它是世界上首種完全自動化和數位化的火砲系統,整套系統從獲得目標、進入陣地、測地、對目標射擊、轉移陣地等,各項程序都由電腦輔助控制。

    XM2001十字軍自走砲

    XM2001十字軍自走砲的戰鬥重量原本高達55噸,不過美國陸軍變更了作戰需求後,目前車輛全重已減至40噸(戰鬥重量為48噸),並對主要系統重新設計。整個砲車由三個主要部份組成,分別是數位化的三名組員的乘員艙、在武器艙內的全自動彈藥裝填與發射系統、引擎室。每輛自走榴砲裝有48枚砲彈和208枚模組化砲兵藥包,火砲的每分鐘最高射速是12發,最大射程超過40公里。由於配備有自動彈藥裝填系統、附有冷卻套筒火砲和數位輔助裝置,使得十字軍系統在任何野戰狀況都能夠持續戰鬥。

    XM2001擁有最先進的固態推進藥火砲系統,內含XM297十字軍增程加農砲、十字軍砲架和一套雷射擊發系統。這座先進火砲能夠以每分鐘12發的高射速,將砲彈準確地命中5到40公里範圍的目標,這種砲兵武器之所以有如此優異的性能表現,必需歸功於下列幾項技術特性。
     

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    ※1.先進的砲管設計,56倍徑的長砲管採用整合式中層冷卻(Integral Midwall Cooled,IMC)技術,內含設計特殊的主動式砲管冷卻循環系統。整套砲管冷卻循環系統是由射擊時的砲身後座力來推動,冷卻液從砲架被輸送至砲管中層,而回流的冷卻液再從砲管外的管線回流到砲架,以循環的冷卻液來降低砲管射擊時產生的高溫,使得砲管熱膨脹對射擊精度的影響能夠降低。

    ※2.砲管和砲膛經過鍍鉻加工處理,使得砲管較不易磨損和變形。

    ※3.砲膛可匹配模組化火砲裝藥系統(Modular Artillery Charge System,MACS)的固態推進藥,實現了裝藥自動裝填,大幅提高了火砲的操作彈性、射程、射速、精確度,並降低後勤需求。

    ※4.配備輕量緊緻的滑楔式砲閂,提供整座火砲較快且自動化機能的高射擊速率。

    ※5.十字軍砲架採用施耐德(Schneider)式的後座機械裝置,內含兩具模組化制退器和兩具模組化復進器,制退與穩定功能極佳。

    ※6.雷射擊發系統與砲閂的自動化裝置整合,提供了長時間、高速率射擊所需的可靠性,並能降低後勤負荷。

    ※7.胡椒罐構型的整合式砲口制退器,兼具了重量較輕和可有效降低後座力衝擊的優點。
     

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    XM2001自走砲的砲彈彈艙設置在底盤的左、右兩側,砲彈採垂直放置;藥包彈艙則位於砲塔後部,備用藥包係水平抽取式儲放。左、右兩側砲彈彈艙間設有一具揚彈機,進彈系統便利用揚彈機將砲彈舉升放置在砲尾後方的進彈托架裡,接著根據砲手發出的電腦指令抽取藥包彈艙裡的特定藥包,與砲彈一起推送到砲膛內,便完成了射擊前的裝彈作業。附帶一提MACS藥包,整套模組藥包系統是由M231低量藥包和M232高量藥包所組成,其中的1號裝藥為1個M231藥包,火砲射程為3.2到8公里;2號裝藥為2個M231藥包,火砲射程為5.6到20.2公里;3號裝藥為3個M232藥包,火砲射程為7.9到20.2公里;4號裝藥為4個M232藥包,火砲射程為10.4到24.7公里;5號裝藥為5個M232藥包,火砲射程為15.8到30.5公里;6號裝藥為6個M232藥包,火砲射程為19到40公里。

    由於配備了高度自動化的彈藥處理裝填系統,火砲的各項操作程序,像是彈藥選擇、裝填、砲管俯仰、砲塔迴轉等,都是依照砲手發出的電腦指令來控制,射擊後火砲會自動調校到原來所設定的操作角度,而自動化的裝彈機還具備了選擇彈種、藥包選定、設定信管等功能。彈藥處理裝填系統運作時,砲手只需要在顯控台前控制和監督,不需人工實際參與作業,使得火砲擁有驚人的發射速度。火砲的每分鐘持續射速為10發,最高射速高達12發,能以這種速率持續發射5分鐘,而最快速的爆發式射擊更高達4發/15秒;這些射擊速率表現與前述的M109改良型相比,更能顯示十字軍系統的驚人優勢......
     

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